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India has various state-of-the-art medical institutes and hospitals of international standards.

India has various state-of-the-art medical institutes and hospitals of international standards.

Genral Surgery

Modern surgery - a ready reckoner

Surgery is derived from the Latin root word "chirurgiae" which means "hand work".

In today's parlance, surgery is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate and treat a pathological condition such as disease or injury.

This medical procedure is done to improve bodily function, appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas. An act of performing a surgery may be called a surgical procedure, operation, or simply surgery.

The patient or subject on which the surgery is performed can be a person or an animal. A surgeon is a person who practices surgery (a specialised doctor) and a surgeon's assistant is a person who practices surgical assistance. A surgical team is made up of surgeon, surgeon's assistant, anaesthesia provider, circulating nurse and surgical technologist.

In modern-day medical care, a surgery may vary from a few minutes for a minor treatment to protracted hours as in the case of complicated brain or heart surgeries. But surgery is usually a one-time incident and does not need such recurring procedures. The term surgery can also refer to the place where surgery is performed, or simply the office of a physician, dentist, or veterinarian.

What does surgery involve?

Surgery is a medical procedure consisting of a physical intervention on tissues and muscles. As a general rule, a procedure is considered surgical when it involves cutting of a patient's tissues or closure of a previously sustained wound.

Other procedures that do not necessarily fall under this definition such as angioplasty or endoscopy may also be considered surgery if they involve "common" surgical procedure or settings.

A surgical setting includes the use of a sterile environment, anaesthesia, antiseptic conditions, typical surgical instruments and suturing or stapling. All forms of surgery are considered invasive procedures.

The so-called "non-invasive surgery" usually refers to an excision that does not penetrate the structure being excised (ex: laser ablation of the cornea) or a radio-surgical procedure (ex: irradiation of a tumour).

Surgery classification

Here are different types of surgery based on urgency, purpose, procedure, body-system involved, degree of invasiveness and high-tech instrumentation:

Timing: Elective surgery for non-life-threatening condition; emergency surgery which has to be done urgency to save life or body part; and semi-elective one that must be done but can be delayed.

Purpose: Exploratory surgery to confirm a diagnosis; therapeutic surgery treats a previously diagnosed condition; and cosmetic one is done to improve the appearance of the patient.

Procedure: Amputation, resection, replantation, reconstructive, excision and transplant surgeries.

Body parts: Cardiac, gastrointestinal and orthopaedic surgeries.

Invasive procedure: Minimally-invasive surgeries like laparoscopic and angioplasty.

An open surgical procedure such as a laparotomy requires a large incision to access the area of interest. Equipment used: Laser, micro and robotic surgeries

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